Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Assisted reproduction is one of the medical wonders of today's global world. This burgeoning medical specialty in recent decades has made it possible for couples with somatic problems of different types to acquire heirs. But how does it all begin?
The first data on artificial insemination in humans dates back to 1790. John Hunter, nicknamed the "founder of medical surgery", administers the insemination of a patient with severe hypospadias, advising him to collect coitus sperm in a heated syringe and apply it to a woman's vagina. In the mid 1800's, J. Marion Sims discovers the post-coital test and has 55 inseminations. In 1899, in Russia, the first practical methods for the artificial insemination of a human were developed and described by Ilya Ivanov Ivanov. In 1899, in Russia, the first practical methods for the artificial insemination of a human by Ilya Ivanov Ivanov are being developed and described, even though he studied artificial fertilization in pets, dogs, rabbits, and birds.

For many years, partner insemination has only been used in cases of physical and psychological sexual dysfunction, such as retrograde ejaculation, vaginism, hypospadias, and impotence. Along with the progressive development of the methods, donor inseminations have begun to be introduced, which are fast becoming routine procedures for the treatment of infertility in men with az oospermia and severe oligoastenosospermia. In 1953, the first successful pregnancy from insemination with frozen semen occurred. A new era in assisted reproduction was beginning.
As science evolves, the discovery of new techniques for treating sperm and improving the success of procedures, ways are being sought to treat infertility in women without functioning fallopian tubes. For the fertilization of an egg from a sperm in vivo or by insemination, at least one of the fallopian tubes must be passable. In the past, many women with tubal infertility have resorted to reparative surgery to restore tubal function. Unfortunately, often these operations are unsuccessful. This necessitates the development of a method for fertilizing the egg outside the woman's body.

In late 1970, Leslie Brown, a primary infertility patient for 9 years, turned to Patrick Steptow and Robert Edwards at Oldham General Hospital in England. At this time, fertilization of oocytes outside the human body, a process known as in vitro fertilization (IVF), was considered to be fully experimental, leading only to abortions and an unsuccessful ectopic pregnancy. Without the use of drugs to stimulate the ovaries, Leslie Brown underwent a laparoscopic puncture. An egg was obtained that was fertilized in a laboratory and later transferred back to the uterus. The embryo transfer marks the first birth of a live baby from IVF - Louise Brown, born in July 1978. This incredible success gives hope to thousands of childless couples around the world. Each year and every procedure performed contribute to the advancement of technology and the achievement of more pregnancies. Since then, a number of advances in clinical medicine and science have enabled more and more couples with reproductive problems to have children. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is introduced to increase the number of oocytes harvested. In February 1984, the first baby from a donor egg was born and a month later the first baby from a frozen embryo. In 1992, the introduction of ICSI-intracytoplasmic injection of sperm directly into the egg represents a major technological advance in ART. This makes it possible to treat couples with a severe male factor. In 1997, the first babies from frozen eggs were born.

The gradual introduction of new techniques - TESA, PESE, ovarian tissue freezing, IMSI, TimeLapse, PGD inevitably increase the success of the procedures. The continued search for new methods of treating infertility and preserving the fertile potential of certain patient groups make assisted reproduction one of the most interesting areas of medicine. To date, more than 6 million babies globally have been conceived and born with assisted reproductive technology.

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